In his daily set of links to items of interest, Michael Sean Winters commits this drive by:
we as a culture used to know money was corrupting, but have forgotten that fact in recent years. There is something to the argument, to be sure, but there was a fascination with the robber barons and the Newport elite longer before “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous” came along. And Calvinism, the strongest religious influence in our culture, has always had a soft spot for wealth, seeing it as evidence of divine approval, rather than as the devil laying his traps.
Notice the either-or perspective on wealth — either it’s from God or from the devil. And Winters thinks Roman Catholic conservatives are guilty of dualism.
What Winters reveals is that Rome has never caught up to Protestants on vocation and how to understand work in the world (whether you make a lot of money or not). Imagine if Rome had taught about secular work as part of the priesthood of all believers. They might have helped Protestants who tried to hold back the tide of acquisitive (or status seeking) participation in the market.
Consider the way that Rod Liddle in his review of J. D. Vance’s Hillbilly Elegy describes middle-class English Protestantism of a generation or so ago:
I was of J. D.’s mum’s generation, the people who made fecklessness a lifestyle choice, and were somehow encouraged to do so. We jettisoned almost everything our parents believed in and made ourselves much worse off—just as did J. D.’s mother. I tried to make sense of this generational shift in a book—Selfish, Whining Monkeys—which attempted to explain the reasons why my generation had managed, in such a short space of time, to let down their children and their parents. Some of it accords with what Vance has to say, even if he does not spell it out. Gone, for example, was any notion of deferred gratification and work ethic—just one of the many consequences of the diminished importance of religion in our lives.
Protestantism inculcated a simple and perhaps confining moral code: work hard, invest, don’t steal, look after your community, put your family first, wait for reward—always wait for reward. Don’t sleep around, don’t lie, don’t spend more money than you have. For my parents’ generation, divorce was a stigma and vanishingly rare, at that. But recently I stood outside a Middlesbrough job center interviewing one hundred or so people who were seeking work. Every single one of that hundred came from a broken family. Every one. And of those who now had children themselves, every one was no longer with the partner with whom she’d had the child. And this state of affairs had not made them happy; it had wrecked them. They were all J. D.’s mum now.
What’s so bad about that approach to work and economic considerations? Granted, those middle-class virtues are not the sole possession of Protestant creeds and confessions. But it is hardly a recipe for “the lives of the rich and famous.”
And what did Roman Catholics offer as an alternative?
Within the early Christian community through the medieval period, a similar attitude toward work in the world as associated with the body and the lower elements of human nature prevailed. Through the influences especially of neo-Platonic thought, the emphasis was upon a life spent in contemplation, as reflected in these words of Augustine in the 5th century, “the contemplation of God is promised us as the goal of all our actions and the eternal perfection of happiness,” or Aquinas in the 13th century, “the contemplation of divine truth . . . is the goal of the whole of human life.” Work which meets the needs of the body, then, has “no lasting religious significance.” As theologian Ernst Troeltsch notes in his monumental study, The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches, “An ethic which starts from the point of view of an original equality, and which holds that the differences that do exist are due to sin, and which at its best regards the division of labour as a Divine arrangement adapted to the needs of fallen humanity, is inherently unable to see any value in ‘callings’ at all” (Troeltsch, Social Teaching, I, 121).
The monastery or the nunnery, places of withdrawal from worldly activities, exemplified the most valued state of life, and even while bodily work occurred in those settings, the work was a means of purification and the development of virtue, not an activity to be pursued for itself. Furthermore, in the later medieval period as liturgical practices took up more and more of the roles and time of the monks and nuns, they no longer worked to support themselves; many lived off the wealth of the aristocracy through gifts in exchange for prayer. Even the wandering mendicant friars lived off the good will of those whom they met along the way.
In the Catholic understanding, vocation was a response to God’s calling by removing oneself from the cares and concerns of this world. Sociologist Max Weber notes that in Jewish traditions, among the Greek and Roman classics, or in the medieval world of Catholicism, vocation had none of the contemporary meaning of a fulfillment of one’s duties to God by active engagement in the world. Further, in the medieval world someone who engaged in the work of business was certainly suspect; today’s business state of mind “would both in ancient times and in the Middle Ages have been proscribed as the lowest sort of avarice and as an attitude entirely lacking in self-respect.”8 “Business was only possible for those lax in ethical thinking.” According to Aquinas, there is “something shameful about it [commerce], being without any honorable or necessary defining goal” (quoted in Tam).
Instead of blaming Calvinism, Winters may want to look in the mirror. He may also want to think, as Liddle encourages readers, about economists on the left and the right who have no dog in the hunt for the church Jesus founded:
But it’s not just the retreat of religion, or more properly, our retreat from religion, that caused this shift. It was also the rise of two supposedly oppositional doctrines that grew up in the early 1960s. First, the post-Marxist Frankfurt school of sociologists (Habermas, Horkheimer, Marcuse, et al.), which posited the overthrowing of those old, discredited notions of respect for authority, of capitalism, of anything that could be considered bourgeois, in favor of rampant individualism and free expression—sexually, morally, politically—which unpicked the fabric painstakingly woven by our parents and their parents before them. And then the Chicago school of economists (Hayek, Friedman, et al.), which also posited a rapacious individualism at the expense of the larger society. A deregulated economy in which homes were not places in which one lived, but another form of collateral. An imperative to strive to make money and to spend, to consume and consume without the constraints which had previously attended.
7 thoughts on “Don’t Blame Calvinism”
Interesting how evangelicalism turned these tables. As RC’s we saw prots as divorce prone, avoiding work, religious feel gooders. Just think christian yellowpages and the ichtus flying on the sign. You just knew, and still do, that they were gonna get by on the religious appeal not the quality of the work.
If American readers are scratching their heads, wondering ” Who is this Rod Liddle guy?” allow me to briefly inform you. Rod is an English writer who is not from a lofty intellectual elite, the type who rarely venture outside of London or their post graduate circle of peers and high flyers. He is blunt in style, wickedly funny and provocatively politically incorrect.
Rod’s book called Selfish whining monkeys sums up much of the West’s self absorption and isn’t for the faint hearted or easily offended. It is, however, a cracking read, trenchant and wryly observant of our narcissist age. He is possibly the nearest equivalent England has to America’s H.L. Mencken, and he writes a weekly article for the magazine The Spectator.
UK Paul, how can you not admire Liddle with a title like Selfish Whining Monkeys?
Modern man maintains that enlightened self-interest
is the way to see that society governs itself
But the self-interest is no longer enlightened and
no one is remembering principle
When interest becomes the only principle
What we get is a selfish society
Malesic (the peasant keep it secret from your other hand guy) –“We would be better off if we liberated work from the moral weight of “purpose.” There is dignity in being exploited for what we are good at, and meeting someone else’s need through our own exhaustion. There is cause for celebration in that. Few of us will ever find our meritocratic purpose, much less “OWN it!” That shouldn’t mean we’re failures. Often, just standing in the PAID circle is a triumph. That’s certainly true for day laborers, whose purpose on the job is to make each other’s work bearable”
Marx sounds more Kuyperian, because he expects a continuity between this age and the next in which our achievements continue last—“When we have chosen the vocation in which we can contribute most to humanity, burdens cannot bend us because they are only sacrifices for all. Then we experience no meager, limited, egotistic joy, but our happiness belongs to millions, OUT DEEDS LIVE ON quietly but ETERNALLY EFFECTIVE
Mencken: Anticipation is better than realization. Disappointment is the lot of man. . . . Yet we cling to work as the meaning of life.and even try to fill work with gaudy hocus-pocus.
DG, Yes Rod Liddle had a winning way with phrases and has what so many Southern social and political commentators don’t have: a sense of humour which is genuinely funny and may show that we Northerners don’t take ourselves too seriously. His recent description of Theresa May prior to the General Election was priceless and very accurate. There are a few Youtube videos of him, with one especially highlighting the pompous officialdom of London councils.
Stuart Macconie, who hails from the Lancashire ex coal mining town of Wigan, also writes with equal wit and self deprecating warmth on many aspects of British music and culture.
The question here is tricky because it is not clear to some on how to separate the ideology from the people who claim to be followers. For there are enough Calvinists who are at least silently complicit with the economic exploitation that occurs today. And part of that has to do with the small world attitude expressed in the description of the Calvinistic view of economics.